The Five Types of Psoriatic Arthritis

Psoriatic arthritis can cause pain and swelling in joints throughout the body

January 24, 2013 / Author:  / Reviewed by: Joseph V. Madia, MD

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If your psoriasis has turned into psoriatic arthritis, you may be feeling some serious joint pain. But your painful joints may not be the same as those of another patient. There are five different types of psoriatic arthritis, and each type affects different joints.

Psoriatic arthritis is an inflammatory condition that affects the joints of people with psoriasis. Psoriasis is a skin condition that causes red, scaly patches on the body. Not every psoriasis patient goes on to develop psoriatic arthritis, but every patient with psoriatic arthritis has psoriasis.

According to the National Psoriasis Foundation, about 7.5 million Americans have psoriasis. Research has shown that between 10 and 30 percent of these patients will go on to develop psoriatic arthritis.

In some cases, psoriatic arthritis may involve only a few joints, particularly those in the fingers and toes. However, the condition can become more severe and involve many joints, including the spine. As psoriatic arthritis worsens, the patchy scales of psoriasis may also become worse.

People with psoriatic arthritis may experience any of the five types of psoriatic arthritis. Some patients may even experience all five types over the course of their disease.

If you have psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis, you should know what each type of psoriatic arthritis looks like. Knowing the signs and symptoms of psoriatic arthritis can help you and your doctor figure out the right course of treatment.

Types of Psoriatic Arthritis

Symmetric psoriatic arthritis

Symmetric arthritis is one of the most common forms of psoriatic arthritis. It may look much like rheumatoid arthritis, but is typically milder and involves less joint deformity.

Symmetric arthritis affects the same joints on both sides of the body. Any joint can be affected.

Asymmetric psoriatic arthritis

This is another one of the most common types of psoriatic arthritis. Unlike symmetric arthritis, asymmetric arthritis does not happen in the same joints on both sides of the body.

In some patients, asymmetric arthritis involves only a few joints. In others, the condition involves many joints.

Asymmetric arthritis can affect any joint. Joints may feel warm and tender and may appear red. Joint pain may come in episodes, but can be controlled with medication.

Generally, asymmetric arthritis is mild. However, some patients may develop disability.

Distal interphalangeal predominant psoriatic arthritis

This type of psoriatic arthritis mainly involves the joints closest to the nails of the fingers and toes, which are known as the distal joints.

Distal interphalangeal predominant arthritis is rare, affecting only about 5 percent of patients with psoriatic arthritis. In some cases, this form of psoriatic arthritis is mistaken for osteoarthritis. However, changes to nails are frequent and easily seen.

Spondylitis

Some patients experience a form of psoriatic arthritis that mainly affects the spine. This form is called spondylitis and causes inflammation in the joints between the vertebrae of the spine. Spondylitis is the main symptom in about 5 percent of psoriatic arthritis patients.

Symptoms of spondylitis often include pain and stiffness in the neck or back, which can lead to disability. Spondylitis can also spread to joints in the arms, legs, hands and feet.

Arthritis mutilans

Arthritis mutilans is the most severe and damaging form of psoriatic arthritis. It is the least common type of psoriatic arthritis, affecting less than 5 percent of patients.

Arthritis mutilans mainly affects small joints in the hands and feet. These joints can become deformed and cripples. Patients may even experience bone loss (osteolysis) at the joints, which can cause the fingers and toes to become shorter.

The neck and back may also be involved in this form of psoriatic arthritis.

Now that you know...

If you have psoriasis, it's important to know the signs and symptoms of psoriatic arthritis. This knowledge can allow you to realize when your condition has progressed into arthritis.

If you are experiencing joint pain in addition to your normal psoriasis symptoms, see your doctor as soon as possible. A doctor can provide advice and treatment for keeping your condition from getting worse. 

Reviewed by: 
Review Date: 
January 22, 2013
Last Updated:
January 22, 2013